Apa research paper past or present tense

For singluar words, add an "s" to the end, even if the final letter is an "s. Note that contractions are rarely used in scholarly writing. For groups or organizations, the name is capitalized when it is the full name [e. In general, the use of capital letters should be minimized as much as possible.

Apa research paper past or present tense

When to use what tense Final Research Paper The general rule is to maintain consistency in the tenses used within each section of your paper. However, different tenses are traditionally used in different sections of a research report: For most writers, the choice of tense is second nature and may occasionally change even within these sections.

The Literature Review section may use a combination of past and present tense, since the purpose of a literature review is to both describe and discuss prior research.

General Format

View examples of past tense and present tense usage in context of a research report. Proposal The general rule is to maintain consistency in the tenses used within each section of your proposal.

However, for most writers, the choice of tense is second nature and may occasionally change even within sections. Since the proposal is written before doing your research, your plans should be expressed in the future tense.

Apa research paper past or present tense

In other words, the sections of the proposal that describe your Methodology and the Contents of the Project Report should be written mainly in the future tense. These are general patterns only. The Rationale section should be written in a combination of present and past tense because it contains both description and discussion of prior research.

The Abstract section of the proposal also uses a combination of tenses.

What is verb tense consistency?

View examples of presentpast and future tense usage in the context of a proposal.Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research, for example, Jones () found or Jones () has found.

Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research. E.g., Jones () found or Jones. However, if you are citing articles in the paper, as you probably should, then you should check with your professor to see if he or she would prefer that you use the literary present or the past tense when referring to these articles.

Use the past tense (e.g., researchers presented) or the present perfect (e.g., researchers have presented) for the literature review and the description of the procedure if discussing past events.

Use of the Active Voice and the First Person in APA-Style Research Manuscripts

Use the past tense to describe the results (e.g., test scores improved significantly). Citations: Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research, for example, Jones () found or .

American Psychological Association (APA, ), (APA, ) stated that the past tense of verbs should be used to express an action or a condition that use present tense verbs in the discussions and conclusions (Onwuegbuzie et al., ).

APA Style Guide - M. Plonsky, Ph.D.