The different types of models are the black box model, the personal variable model, and the comprehensive model, and each model has a specific focus. The black box model concentrates on external stimuli, the personal variable model focuses on internal stimuli within the consumer, and the comprehensive model studies a combination of external and internal stimuli. Consumer behavior models vary in terms of the complexity of the behavior that is being studied. The primary purpose of studying consumer behavior is for marketers to better understand and therefore better target consumers in their marketing strategies.
History of marketing thought In the s and 50s, marketing was dominated by the so-called classical schools of thought which were highly descriptive and relied heavily on case study approaches with only occasional use of interview methods.
At the end of the s, two important reports criticised marketing for its lack of methodological rigor, especially the failure to adopt mathematically-oriented behavioural science research methods. From the s, marketing began to shift is reliance away from economics and towards other disciplines, notably the behavioural sciences, including sociology, anthropology and clinical psychology.
This resulted in a new emphasis on the customer as a unit of analysis. As a result, new substantive knowledge was added to the marketing discipline - including such ideas as opinion leadership, reference groups and brand loyalty. Market segmentationespecially demographic segmentation based on socioeconomic status SES index and household life-cycle, also became fashionable.
With the addition of consumer behaviour, the marketing discipline exhibited increasing scientific sophistication with respect to theory development and testing procedures. By the s, marketing began to adopt techniques used by motivation researchers including depth interviews, projective techniques, thematic apperception tests and a range of qualitative and quantitative research methods.
Consumer behaviour is concerned with: As a field of study, consumer behaviour is an applied social science. Consumer behaviour analysis is the "use of behaviour principles, usually gained experimentally, to interpret human economic consumption.
Understanding purchasing and consumption behaviour is a key challenge for marketers. Consumer behaviour, in its broadest sense, is concerned with understanding both how purchase decisions are made and how products or services are consumed or experienced.
Consumers are active decision-makers. They decide what to purchase, often based on their disposable income or budget. They may change their preferences related to their budget and a range of other factors.
Some purchase decisions involve long, detailed processes that include extensive information search to select between competing alternatives. Some purchase decisions are made by groups such as families, households or businesses while others are made by individuals.
When a purchase decision is made by a small group, such as a household, different members of the group may become involved at different stages of the decision process and may perform different roles. For example, one person may suggest the purchase category, another may search for product-related information while yet another may physically go to the store, buy the product and transport it home.
It is customary to think about the types of decision roles; such as: In a family unit, the adult female often makes brand choices on behalf of the entire household, while children can be important influencers The Initiator the person who proposes a brand or product for consideration something in return ; The Influencer someone who recommends a given brand; The Decider the person who makes the ultimate purchase decision; The Purchaser the one who orders or physically buys it; The User the person who uses or consumes the product.
The importance of children as influencers in a wide range of purchase contexts should never be underestimated and the phenomenon is known as pester power. The decision model situates the black box in a broader environment which shows the interaction of external and internal stimuli e.
The decision model assumes that purchase decisions do not occur in a vacuum. The elements of the model include: In practice some purchase decisions, such as those made routinely or habitually, are not driven by a strong sense of problem-solving. High involvement products are those that carry higher levels of risk and are often expensive, infrequent purchases.
The strength of the need drives the entire decision process.
Information search describes the phase where consumers scan both their internal memory and external sources for information about products or brands that will potentially satisfy their need. The aim of the information search is to identify a list of options that represent realistic purchase options.
Throughout the entire process, the consumer engages in a series of mental evaluations of alternatives, searching for the best value. Towards the end of the evaluation stage, consumers form a purchase intention, which may or may not translate into an actual product purchase.
The stages of the decision process normally occur in a fixed sequence. Problem recognition[ edit ] The first stage of the purchase decision process begins with problem recognition also known as category need or need arousal.
The strength of the underlying need drives the entire decision process.Marketing theory of consumer buying behavior in which what goes on within the human mind (the black box) is ignored, in favor of discovering which inputs (stimuli) .
NPIEL Consumer Behavior Vinod Gupta School of Management 2.
Buyer’s black box: The stimuli that is presented to the consumer by the marketer and the environment is then dealt with by the buyer’s black box. Aug 09, · What is a Black Box model in Consumer Behavior? In case of consumer behavior, black box is the human mind. Stimulus will be the input whereas the consumer response will be the output.
All a company can do is to guess how human mind worked to give that particular response. ← VALS SURVEY – MARKETER’S PERSPECTIVE.
Marketing theory of consumer buying behavior in which what goes on within the human mind (the black box) is ignored, in favor of discovering which inputs (stimuli) . The buying behaviour of final consumers is influenced by various factors.
These factors or characteristics determine what is going on in the so-called black box of the consumer. The black box model of consumer behaviour identifies the stimuli responsible for buyer behaviour.
The stimuli (advertisement and other forms of promotion about the product) that is presented to the consumer by the marketer and the environment is dealt with by the buyer’s black box.