Civil rights 1945 55

Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. KennedyKing is freed on bond.

Civil rights 1945 55

Work in wartime industry and service in the armed forces, combined with the ideals of democracy, and spawned a new civil rights agenda at home that forever transformed American life.

Black migration to the North, where the right to vote was available, encouraged the Democratic and Republican Parties to solicit African American supporters. Changes in public policy at the federal level augured the end of racial segregation, and civil rights became a national issue for the first time since the Reconstruction era.

An example of the support of the black community is shown

The armed forces blended soldiers and sailors from across the nation into military units, although minorities were confined to racially segregated commands or occupations. The defense industry created jobs that eventually brought about social and legislative reform. Employers encouraged millions of married women and mothers to work outside the home for the first time, a move that for some women led to postwar employment.

Approximately 65, Indians left their reservations to work in the wartime industries and serve in the armed forces. African Americans threatened a "March on Washington" inin their demand for a fair share of jobs and an end to segregation in government departments and the armed forces.

President Roosevelt responded by taking action to ban discrimination in defense industries. To assure compliance, he formed the Federal Employment Practices Committee FEPC ;its hearings exposed racial discrimination practices and helped migrants in the North get work.

The formation of the FEPC also led to the first legal case centered on civil rights issues regarding equal employment for Hispanics, whose leaders appeared before the FEPC and protested the exclusion of Hispanics from many war industries because employers considered them "aliens" despite their American citizenship.

Even as people of color served in the military, those at home still faced racial discrimination from federal and local governments.

Nearlypersons of Japanese descent from Oregon, Washington, and California were removed to internment camps pursuant to Executive Orderwhich authorized the clearing of civilians from "military areas" but were only applied to Japanese Americans.

In the Zoot Suit Riots ofwhite servicemen in Los Angeles attacked Hispanic teenagers, who received no police protection. Chinese Americans, emboldened in part by the role of China as an American ally in the war, struggled against America's deeply rooted and institutionalized anti-Chinese racism, thereby inching closer to abolishing racist ideology in immigration policies.

Six states denied American Indians access to the ballot, basing their decision on illiteracy, residency, nontaxation, and wardship status. The NAACP—emboldened by the record of black servicemen in the war, a new corps of brilliant young lawyers, and steady financial support from white philanthropists—initiated major attacks against discrimination and segregation, even in the Jim Crow South.

Civil rights 1945 55

Social pressure to end segregation also increased during and after the war. Inthe publication of Gunnar Myrdal's classic study of race relations, An American Dilemma, "offered an uncompromising account of the long history of racial injustice and a candid analysis of the economics of inequality.

InTruman commissioned a study of racial inequities that called for an end to segregation in America. InTruman issued Executive Ordermandating "equality of treatment and opportunity for all those who serve in our country's defense…without regard to race, color, religion or national origin.

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Board of Education, which many scholars consider the birth of the modern civil rights movement.Home > A Level and IB > History > Civil Rights in America: Section 1: Civil Rights in America: Section 1: A mindmap outlining the key points (+ and .

6 Richard D. Heffner, A Documentary History of the United States (New York, ), –97; McCusker, “‘The Forgotten Years’ of America's Civil Rights Movement,” The Civil Rights Congress emerged at that transition point and for a time kept alive the dream of a radical labor-based civil rights movement.

Aubrey Grossmen, West Coast Director of the Civil Rights Congress, spoke to that vision at a meeting of the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union on the Seattle waterfront.

The Civil Rights Act of created a new Commission on Civil Rights to investigate civil rights violations and expanded a small Civil Rights Section into its own Civil Rights Division in the Department of Justice headed by an assistant attorney general.

--Jason Sokol, author of There Goes My Everything: White Southerners in the Age of Civil Rights, In the southern Georgia of , Murphy Station is a community marked only by two country stores, two Baptist churches, and a graveyard.

Farming is the way of life, and segregation is in full force. Welcome to Deep Dixie. What were the findings of the Commission on Civil disorder?_____ Describe the new approach of ‘Black Power’ What impact did it have socially and psychologically on African Americans?

American Civil Rights Timeline - History Learning Site