TH Darmstadt, Germany, Dipl. He has submitted several important technical papers to the Journal of the Audio Engineering Society and other related publications, which have become foundational to modern loudspeaker theory. Examples of his recent work include extensive development of dipolar loudspeaker theory.
Historical For the hack novelist, to whom speedy output is more important than art, thought, and originality, history provides ready-made plots and characters.
A novel on Alexander the Great or Joan of Arc can be as flimsy and superficial as any schoolgirl romance. There is a kind of historical novellittle more than a charadewhich frequently has a popular appeal because of a common belief that the past is richer, bloodier, and more erotic than the present.
On the other hand, the American novelist John Barth showed in The Sot-Weed Factor that mock historical scholarship—preposterous events served up with parodic pomposity—could constitute a viable, and not necessarily farcical, approach to the past.
It is in the technical conservatism of most European historical novels that the serious student of fiction finds cause to relegate the category to a secondary place.
Few practitioners of the form seem prepared to learn from any writer later than Scott, though Virginia Woolf —in Orlando and Between the Acts —made bold attempts to squeeze vast tracts of historical time into a small space and thus make them as fictionally manageable as the events of a single day.
But the term has come to connote as much the episodic nature of the original species as the dynamic of roguery. The requirements for a picaresque novel are apparently length, loosely linked episodes almost complete in themselves, intrigue, fights, amorous adventure, and such optional items as stories within the main narrative, songs, poems, or moral homilies.
Perhaps inevitably, with such a structure or lack of it, the driving force must come from a wild or roguish rejection of the settled bourgeois life, a desire for the open road, with adventures in inn bedrooms and Island aldous huxley essay with questionable wanderers.
The vogue of the sentimental love novel was one of the features of the Romantic movement, and the form maintained a certain moving dignity despite a tendency to excessive emotional posturing.
The debasement by which the term sentimental came to denote a self-indulgence in superficial emotions occurred in the Victorian era, under the influence of sanctimony, religiosity, and a large commercial demand for bourgeois fiction.
Sentimental novels of the 19th and 20th centuries are characterized by an Island aldous huxley essay emotionalism and a deliberately lachrymal appeal. Neither Dickens nor Thackeray was immune to the temptations of sentimentality—as is instanced by their treatment of deathbed scenes.
Despite such patches of emotional excess, Dickens cannot really be termed a sentimental novelist. Such a designation must be reserved for writers like Mrs.
Henry Woodthe author of East Lynne That the sentimental novel is capable of appeal even in the Atomic Age is shown by the success of Love Storyby Erich Segal. That this is the work of a Yale professor of classics seems to indicate either that not even intellectuals disdain sentimental appeal or that tearjerking is a process to be indulged in coldly and even cynically.
Stock emotions are always easily aroused through stock devices, but both the aim and the technique are generally eschewed by serious writers. The atmosphere of a Gothic novel was expected to be dark, tempestuous, ghostly, full of madness, outrage, superstition, and the spirit of revenge.
Edgar Allan Poe developed the Gothic style brilliantly in the United States, and he has been a considerable influence. A good deal of early science fiction, like H. It is noteworthy that Gothic fiction has always been approached in a spirit of deliberate suspension of the normal canons of taste.
Like a circus trick, a piece of Gothic fiction asks to be considered as ingenious entertainment; the pity and terror are not aspects of a cathartic process but transient emotions to be, somewhat perversely, enjoyed for their own sake.
More primitive fiction had been characterized by a proliferation of action and incidental characters; the psychological novel limited itself to a few characters whose motives for action could be examined and analyzed.
In England, the psychological novel did not appear until the Victorian era, when George Eliot became its first great exponent. The theories of Sigmund Freud are credited as the source of the psychoanalytical novel.
Two 20th-century novelists of great psychological insight—Joyce and Nabokov—professed a disdain for Freud. To write a novel with close attention to the Freudian or Jungian techniques of analysis does not necessarily produce new prodigies of psychological revelation; Oedipus and Electra complexes have become commonplaces of superficial novels and films.
The great disclosures about human motivation have been achieved more by the intuition and introspection of novelists and dramatists than by the more systematic work of the clinicians.
The novel of manners To make fiction out of the observation of social behaviour is sometimes regarded as less worthy than to produce novels that excavate the human mind. And yet the social gestures known as manners, however superficial they appear to be, are indices of a collective soul and merit the close attention of the novelist and reader alike.
The works of Jane Austen concern themselves almost exclusively with the social surface of a fairly narrow world, and yet she has never been accused of a lack of profundity.
A society in which behaviour is codified, language restricted to impersonal formulas, and the expression of feeling muted, is the province of the novel of manners, and such fiction may be produced as readily in the 20th century as in the era of Fanny Burney or Jane Austen.
Finally, the novel of manners may be taken as an artistic symbol of a social order that feels itself to be secure. Epistolary The novels of Samuel Richardson arose out of his pedagogic vocation, which arose out of his trade of printer—the compilation of manuals of letter-writing technique for young ladies.
His age regarded letter writing as an art on which could be expended the literary care appropriate to the essay or to fiction, and, for Richardson, the creation of epistolary novels entailed a mere step from the actual world into that of the imagination. His Pamela and Clarissa won phenomenal success and were imitated all over Europe, and the epistolary novel—with its free outpouring of the heart—was an aspect of early romanticism.
In the 19th century, when the letter-writing art had not yet fallen into desuetude, it was possible for Wilkie Collins to tell the mystery story of The Moonstone in the form of an exchange of letters, but it would be hard to conceive of a detective novel using such a device in the 20th century, when the well-wrought letter is considered artificial.
But it shares with the Richardsonian epistle the power of seeming to grant direct communication with a fictional character, with no apparent intervention on the part of the true author. Pastoral Fiction that presents rural life as an idyllic condition, with exquisitely clean shepherdesses and sheep immune to foot-rot, is of very ancient descent.
The Paul et Virginie of Bernardin de St. Pierrewhich was immensely popular in its day, seems to spring less from the pastoral utopian convention than from the dawning Romanticism that saw in a state of nature only goodness and innocence.Grey Eminence [Aldous Huxley] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
The life of Father Joseph, Cardinal Richelieu's aide, was a shocking paradox. After spending his days directing operations on the battlefield. In Observer editor David Astor lent George Orwell a remote Scottish farmhouse in which to write his new book, Nineteen Eighty-Four.
It became one of the most significant novels of the 20th. 50 Documents That Tell America’s Story Required reading for students, teachers, and citizens. Access Now. ISLAND by Aldous Huxley PLOT SUMMARY (1) This book starts off with Will Farnaby, a journalist/underground 'reporter' (for Lord Aldehyde, an oil magnate) of sorts for an oil magnate, 'crashing' his boat on the island of Pala.
The ordinary three-volume novel from the lending library and the continued serial in the magazine or newspaper supplied the demand by aping, adapting, and diluting not one but half a dozen literary tendencies, old and new. RAVE NEW WORLD REVISITED  by Aldous Huxley. Contents Foreword I Over-Population II Quantity, Quality, Morality III Over-Organization IV Propaganda in a Democratic Society V Propaganda Under a Dictatorship VI The Arts of Selling VII Brainwashing VIII Chemical Persuasion IX Subconscious Persuasion X Hypnopaedia XI Education for Freedom XII What Can Be Done?.