His father died inand the family relocated to Naumburg, where he grew up in a household comprising his mother, grandmother, two aunts, and his younger sister, Elisabeth.
Preface[ edit ] Nietzsche's treatise outlines his thoughts "on the origin of our moral prejudices" previously given brief expression in his Human, All Too Human Nietzsche decided that "a critique of moral values" was needed, that "the value of these values themselves must be called into question".
This inversion of values develops out of the ressentiment of the powerful by the weak. Nietzsche rebukes the "English psychologists" for lacking historical sense. They seek to do moral genealogy by explaining altruism in terms of the utility of altruistic actions, which is subsequently forgotten as such actions become the norm.
But the judgment "good", according to Nietzsche, originates not with the beneficiaries of altruistic actions. Rather, the good themselves the powerful coined the term "good". Further, Nietzsche sees it as psychologically absurd that altruism derives from a utility that is forgotten: Such meaningless value-judgment gains currency From the aristocratic mode of valuation another mode of valuation branches off, which develops into its opposite: Nietzsche proposes that longstanding confrontation between the priestly caste and the warrior caste fuels this splitting of meaning.
The priests, and all those who feel disenfranchised and powerless in a situation of subjugation and physical impotence e.
To the noble life, justice is immediate, real, and good, necessarily requiring enemies. In contrast, slave morality believes, through " ressentiment " and the self-deception that the weak are actually the wronged meek deprived of the power to act with immediacy, that justice is a deferred event, an imagined revenge which will eventually win everlasting life for the weak and vanquish the strong.
In the First Treatise, Nietzsche introduces one of his most controversial images, the "blond beast".
He had previously employed this expression to represent the lion, an image that is central to his philosophy and made its first appearance in Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
Nietzsche expressly insists it is a mistake to hold beasts of prey to be "evil", for their actions stem from their inherent strength, rather than any malicious intent.
Similarly, it is a mistake to resent the strong for their actions, because, according to Nietzsche, there is no metaphysical subject. Only the weak need the illusion of the subject or soul to hold their actions together as a unity.
But they have no right to make the bird of prey accountable for being a bird of prey. Man relies on the apparatus of forgetfulness [which has been "bred" into him] in order not to become bogged down in the past.
This forgetfulness is, according to Nietzsche, an active "faculty of repression", not mere inertia or absentmindedness.
Man needs to develop an active faculty to work in opposition to this, so promises necessary for exercising control over the future can be made: This control over the future allows a "morality of custom" to establish.
Such morality is sharply differentiated from Christian or other "ascetic" moralities. The product of this morality, the autonomous individual, comes to see that he may inflict harm on those who break their promises to him.
On the Genealogy of Morals A Polemical Tract by Friedrich Nietzsche [This document, which has been prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, is in the public domain and may be used by anyone, in whole or in part, without permission and without charge, provided the source is . This person article needs cleanup. Please review Wikiquote:Templates, especially the standard format of people articles, to determine how to edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. You should also check this article's talk page to see if the person who added this message left an explanation there. This page has been listed as needing cleanup since Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (/ ˈ n iː tʃ ə, -tʃ i /; German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːtʃə] () or [- ˈniːtsʃə]; 15 October – 25 August ) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Punishment, then, is a transaction in which the injury to the autonomous individual is compensated for by the pain inflicted on the culprit. Such punishment is meted out without regard for moral considerations about the free will of the culprit, his accountability for his actions, and the like: The creditor is compensated for the injury done by the pleasure he derives from the infliction of cruelty on the debtor.
Hence the concept of guilt Schuld derives from the concept of debt Schulden. Nietzsche develops the "major point of historical methodology": The origin of punishment, for example, is in a procedure that predates punishment.
Punishment has not just one purpose, but a whole range of "meanings" which "finally crystallizes into a kind of unity that is difficult to dissolve, difficult to analyze andNietzsche’s response to such an objection can be found in third essay of the Genealogy: that cold, dispassionate quests for truth are too redolent of asceticism; a divorce of one’s will from one’s perspective; the laughable pretense of bird’s-eye objectivity.
In the final essay found in On the Genealogy of Morals Nietzsche concerns himself with the notion of ascetic ideals. Different kinds of people have different ascetic ideals, but all examples of ascetic ideals are attempts to justify or obscure the individual's underlying will to power.
Friedrich Nietzsche [This document, which has been prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, is in the public domain and may be used by anyone, in whole or in part, without permission and without charge, provided the source is acknowledged.
This commentary is part of The Atlas Society's online "CyberSeminar" entitled " Nietzsche and Objectivism." In this post, I briefly note some of the more interesting points that struck my notice in the second and third essays of The Genealogy of Morals. + free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day?
Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. On the Genealogy of Morality: A Polemic (Genealogy of Morals) is an book by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. It consists of a preface and three interrelated essays that expand and follow through on concepts Nietzsche sketched out in Beyond Good and Evil ().