Scaffolded writing and rewriting in the discipline of taxonomy Kwangsu Cho. Available on the web 19 April
Adult learning; Architectures for educational technology system; Distributed learning environments; Im- proving classroom teaching; Post-secondary education 1. Introduction Professional and academic success in all disciplines depends, at least in part, upon writing skills.
National Commission on Writing in American Schools and Colleges found that content classes outside English composition classes are providing near-total neglect of writing.
As a result, students, especially in large content courses, rarely practice writing and rewriting. It seems a natural choice to replace instructor or expert reviews with reciprocal peer reviews to remedy the unfortunately current situation. First, reciprocal peer reviews may be fundamentally limited in that student peer reviewers are novices in their disciplines.
Thus, their feedback and evaluation could be inaccurate relative to the feedback generated by a subject-matter expert or instructor. Finally, instructors often complain about the work required to administrate reciprocal peer reviews such as selecting reviewers for writers and exchanging writing and reviewing.
Therefore, we have developed a web-based reciprocal peer review system called SWoRD to addresses the above and related issues. Since we observe that learning systems developed for research often fail to survive in real classrooms, SWoRD has been trying to lower its technology threshold for students as well as instructors to use while keeping the system secure and stable.
This paper describes how SWoRD version 3.
This paper is organized the following way: Note that this paper only focuses on the key activities in SWoRD that seem most relevant for supporting student learning.
Other various management functions and instructor interface are not discussed. In this section, we K.
Authors write and publish papers Reviewers in the domain Teachers read the Some teachers do not take a Reviewers review papers generate feedback papers careful look at papers even if students submitted the papers Authors get the feedback Students get the grade Students get the grade, but Authors get feedback and give with feedback.
Cognitive work analysis of writing practice. How SWoRD addresses them is dis- cussed in a later section. It was found that writing practice in classes is a function of instructor feedback, which plays a major barrier to increasing writing practice. How- ever, instructors are simply overwhelmed by the workload of reading student writing and giving feedback on it.
As a result, they rarely ask students to write papers in classes. In other words, stu- dents practice writing only when instructors can provide them with feedback.
When instructors administrate writing practice, students are rarely asked to revise their writing based on feedback.
Even students in small classes are in a similar situation. Thus, students in general are unlikely to have the oppor- tunities to rewrite their papers.
Because of this, students are losing critical chances to develop their writing skills by incorporating feedback into their papers.
Writing researchers emphasize the prac- tice of revision and rewriting using feedback to advance writing skills Schriver, Other stu- dents in a class do not have access to peer writing and feedback given to it.
However, in classes, there is typically no publication process to the class. Reciprocal peer reviews and problems One way to include and improve writing practice in content classes is to implement reciprocal peer reviews in the writing process.
In reciprocal peer reviews, individual students take two roles: Studies have showed that reciprocal evaluation has the advan- tage of reducing teacher workload Rada et al.
Nevertheless, reciprocal peer reviews have clear drawbacks. First, undergraduate students are generally novices in their disciplines.Scaffolded Writing and Rewriting in the Discipline (SWoRD) SWoRD is a web-based reciprocal peer evaluation tool developed by the University of Pittsburgh.
Young and his team have found several benefits from the use of this application in classrooms. Peter Elbow uses two metaphors to describe writing, growing and cooking. Growing is free-writing, the generation of material. Cooking involves the integrating, even clashing of ideas (similar to the thesis/antithesis/synthesis idea).
POWER (Peer Online Writing and Editing Room, Chien, ), SWoRD (Scaffolded Writing and Rewriting in the Discipline, Cho et al. ), and CPR (Calibrated Peer Review, Chapman, ) are writing.
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Mar 10, · SWoRD [scaffolded writing and rewriting in the disciplines], a web-based application developed by Cho and Schunn. It has students respond to writing by rating it and giving comments in three areas: prose flow, logic, and insight.
Cho, Schunn and a number of others have studied the differences between student and instructor comments. Abstract. This paper describes how SWoRD (Scaffolded Writing and Rewriting in the Discipline), a web-based application, supports the process of writing practice by improving inaccurate student peer reviews.